You know that’s a Mandela Effect. “Lucy you got some splaining to do” was a line that was never actually muttered on “I Love Lucy”.
Anyway…. what the fuck Paulides? I’m used to being disappointed by authors and content creators by this point, but still, this one sucked. I’m surprised it took this long for someone to actually double check the Missing 411 research. It’s sad to find out that David Paulides seems to have purposefully glanced over certain glaring pieces of evidence in many of the cases cited in his first book that might have made the cases seem much less anomalous to the reader if armed with all the facts. There is no way that Paulides wouldn’t have encountered most of this very public information about the cases at hand during his research for the first book and its wholly unacceptable for him to have included some of these cases that he knew damn well were very explainable and should not have been included in the book.
This does not mean that I don’t think there is something to this phenomenon. There are enough crazy cases that have been documented and verified by this point to acknowledge that something paranormal is happening here that deserves our attention, regardless if Paulides might have embellished certain cases in his early work in order to have sufficient material to publish into a compete book early on in his writing career. I had also not known that he was fired from the Police Department for actual fraud. Yikes.
Missing 411: Eastern United States | DOWNLOAD PDF
Missing 411: North America and Beyond | DOWNLOAD PDF
David Paulides’ first Missing 411 book is called Eastern United States – Unexplained disappearances of North Americans that have never been solved and it was released in 2011. Its main focus is American farmers who went missing under strange circumstances.
According to David Paulides “farmers in North America represent a specific group of the missing person phenomenon that needed to be included in this book.” (EUS, p. 26). The reason is these missing farmers “knew their farms like we know our front and backyards, yet they simply vanished. … They knew the dangers associated with certain areas and certain work, but after all those years and all of that experience, these intelligent people inexplicably vanished.” (EUS, p. 26).
The farmers were abducted
David Paulides writes (EUS, p. 26): “It’s difficult to imagine what could have gone so horribly wrong that families and neighbours couldn’t find the vast majority of these hard-working people.”. Paulides fears the Missing 411 phenomenon will create more victims in the future: “I believe that this scenario will continue to replicate itself, and great people will continue to go missing. … The evidence from these cases indicates one thing: the victims were coerced into leaving their farms or were abducted from their land. No other explanation fits.”.
Can new research somehow solve these strange disappearances?
American farmers go missing under strange circumstances as documented by researcher David Paulides. I will here look into thirteen Missing 411 cases where farmers disappeared in an attempt to shed some more light on this phenomenon.
Riley Amsbaugh (1902)
55 years old, went missing in Ohio
The Missing 411 account
David Paulides describes Amsbaugh as “a man of habit and [he] was expected back at his house for lunch, but he never returned” (EUS, p. 28). Paulides says witnesses had seen Amsbaugh in his cornfield and at a berry patch “but few other details were available”. Paulides continues (EUS, p. 28): “The local sheriff did join the search and stated that seventy-five people had scoured the woods looking for Riley. No clues have been found.”.
News-Journal (25 Jul, 1902) published a quite lengthy article on the Amsbaugh disappearance stating Amsbaugh was a “very well to do farmer” and that his house had been burglarised in 1901, so foul play was one of the main theories. There was however a second competing theory, the article states: “Another supposition is that Mr. Amsbaugh may have had a sun stroke and having become demented wondered (sic!) off.”.
It turns out two days after he went missing Amsbaugh was found – alive. The Times Recorder (28 Jul, 1902) states: “Riley Amsbaugh, the wealthy farmer who disappeared from his home last Thursday, was found this morning. He had become temporarily demented and walked to Mt. Vernon. He returned during the night and yas (sic!) found by the family today at the roadside.”.
E.C. Jones (1903)
24 years old, went missing in Iowa
The Missing 411 account
David Paulides writes (EUS, p. 28-29): “The Pocahontas County Sun newspaper describes another ‘mysterious’ disappearance of a farmer on November 12, 1903. E.C. Jones was a man married only a month when he kissed his new bride goodbye and headed into his cornfield to work. At three p.m., Jones had not returned from the field so his wife requested one of the assistants to search the farm for Jones. … A search by the local community failed to find any sign of the young farmer.”.
Why would a newly married man disappear? The answer is E.C. Jones was jealous so he decided to leave his wife (his explanation letter is reprinted below). Two days before Jones disappeared his wife wanted to go to a neighbour’s house to bring home her sisters who had spent the evening there, but Jones refused to drive her there. Jones’s wife then said that she “would then get another driver” (The Courier – 07 Dec, 1903) and this made him jealous.
A headline in The Courier (07 Dec, 1903) reads: “YOUNG JONES HEARD FROM – Webster County Farmer Writes to Wife From Minneapolis – Left Because He Was Jealous of His Wife – Says He Will Never Come Back Unless Forgiven”.
The day Jones went missing he had causally mentioned “he might be late for dinner” (The Courier – 12 Nov, 1903). When his neighbours found out about the letter they were “quite angry”, because they spent three days looking for him (Evening Times-Republican – 07 Dec, 1903).
Edward Gerke (1918)
Age unknown, went missing in Wisconsin
The Missing 411 account
David Paulides writes (EUS, p. 29): “Gerke got a 6:00 a.m. start to his chores and went into the field Sunday morning to work his newly purchased land on Bear Creek. He didn’t return for lunch, and the family became concerned. Midday Sunday the family went into the field and found Edward lying in a ditch in his pasture with a broken neck and sand in his mouth. They also thought that some of his clothes had been partially burned.”.
David Paulides continues (EUS, p. 29): “The coroner reported that lightning possibly caused Edward’s death but there was never conclusive proof as to how his neck was broken.”.
Lightning was mentioned as a possible cause of death, but a Dr. Sheehy examined Gerke and he discovered Gerke’s clothing “was saturated with either gasoline or kerosene” (The La Crosse Tribune – 12 Jun, 1918). The article continues: “Monroe county authorities cannot explain the presence of this.”. Authorities decided not to investigate the case further, but a couple of weeks later a coroner’s jury said Gerke’s death “was caused by lightning” (Shullsburg Pick and Gad – 27 Jun, 1918).
David Paulides fails to mention the gasoline/kerosine detail. Please note if Gerke was hit by lightning it is not a Missing 411 case and if foul play was involved (Gerke’s clothing was drenched in gasoline/kerosene) it is not a Missing 411 case.
Bernice Price (1923)
18 years old, went missing in California
The Missing 411 account
David Paulides writes Bernice Price was a new wife “staying with her husband at the ranch when she mysteriously disappeared Monday night” (EUS, p. 28). Paulides continues (EUS, p. 28): “Searchers believe she may have walked into the woods and become lost. Price was never found.”.
Oakland Tribune (22 Mar, 1923) provides some additional information, an article states Price was “recuperating from a nervous collapse”.
A few days after the mysterious disappearance a telegram was sent to Sheriff J.H. Barnett and the sender was Constable O.H. Robinson of the eleventh district of Powers, Oregon. Constable Robinson wrote “Price is with her father at Powers, Oregon, sick, frightened and afraid of her husband who she declares threatened to kill her”. The telegram said Price did not want to see her husband again and told him not to come to Powers.
This telegram is not mentioned in Eastern United States.
William Pitsenbarger (1931)
61 one years old, went missing in Ohio
The Missing 411 account
David Paulides writes (EUS, p. 29-30): “On August 7, William walked across his cornfield wearing his overalls and a straw hat enroute to do chores. When William didn’t return to his residence at the end of the day, a search ensued. The SAR continued to intensify as the days and weeks went on.”.
Some weeks later Pitsenbarger’s body was found in a well in an abandoned log house that had been previously searched. David Paulides continues (EUS, p. 29-30): “Witnesses stated he was a very reliable man who had a successful farm. The coroner decided not to conduct an autopsy and ruled his death as a drowning. The coroner felt that William looked into the well, hitting head. The well cover miraculously fell back into place.”.
Delphos Daily Herald (01 Sep, 1931) states: “An inquest was held Monday at the office of Prosecuting Attorney John I. Miller with Dr. R.H. Good as acting coroner. Several witnesses were examined.”. The verdict was suicide. Paulides says Pitsenbarger was “a very reliable man”, but Paulides fails to mention Pitsenbarger had experienced “a long period of ill health” (Delphos Daily Herald). Pitsenbarger was not found right away and the log house had been previously searched, which means others had access to the well cover after Pitsenbarger’s disappearance. Strong search lights were used to find the body in the dark water, these strong lights had not been previously utilised.
David Paulides has publicly stated he does not include suicide cases in his Missing 411 research, but here an exception was made.
Clarence Clark (1932)
62 years old, went missing in New York
The Missing 411 Account
David Paulides writes (EUS, p 30): “Clarence Clark lived on a Palermo Farm with his wife and eighty-three-year-old father, Gould. Clarence and Gould worked the livestock daily and were a very close father and son. After Wednesday’s dinner, Clarence went into the livestock yard to check on the herd and then went to take a walk around the swamps that surround his property. This was the last time anyone saw him.
Sergeant Lawrence Fox of the New York State Police led a five day search with over one hundred volunteers. The searchers covered the farm, dense woods, and adjacent swamps without finding one clue where Clarence might be. Searchers were mystified at the lack of tracks in the area and the complete lack of any evidence.”.
The Syracuse Herald (17 Oct, 1932) gives us some additional information: One explanation offered by members of the family is that he has been in poor health recently and was subject to fainting spells. Clark’s poor health is unfortunately not mentioned in Eastern United States by David Paulides.
Mexico Independent (Oct 27, 1932) explains what happened: “They body of Clarence Clark, 62 year old farmer, missing form his home since October 12, and for whom more than 100 friends and neighbors searched the entire section, was found in a clump of swale grass on the farm adjacent to the home farm on Sunday afternoon.”. The body was discovered by the grandson of the missing farmer who saw a foot protruding from under the grass. The article also states: “Dr. Leigh A. Simpson was called. The body had slumped down in the grass as though suffering from a heart attack. Clutched in his hand was a small twig that had broken off in his effort to support himself. The body was removed to an undertaking establishment in Fulton where an exemption showed the man had died from a stroke of apoplexy.”.
George Bell (1936)
62 years old, went missing in Winnipeg (Canada)
The Missing 411 account
David Paulides writes (EUS, p. 30-31): “Mr. Bell went missing from his remote farm outside of Winnipeg. He was 5’5″ tall, weighed 125 pounds. His house and barn were searched, and everything appeared normal at each location. Nothing seemed to be removed from Mr. Bell’s property. Mr. Bell was wearing overalls when he disappeared. A massive search of the adjacent area by RCMP failed to find any evidence of his whereabouts.”.
A headline in The Winnipeg Tribune (02 Sep, 1936) reads: “MISSING FARMER RETURNS AFTER 4 DAYS IN BUSH – Joking Remark By Harvester Causes Nervous Fear – Hid From Searchers.”. The newspapers goes on to say Bell “was very nervous and is being kept from strangers, but gave an explanation of his disappearance to his brother, Frank. … Mr. Bell had been in poor health for some time. According to the story he told his brother, one of the harvesters had been teasing him while they worked together Friday afternoon. A joking remark weighed on his mind and made him so afraid that he wandered off in the bush to escape. ‘A fear came over me’, he said.”.
Jewell Hinrickson and Judd McWilliams (1948)
35 years old and 82 years old, went missing in Montana
The Missing 411 accounts
Jewell Hinrickson was an employee at a ranch near Lewiston, Montana. David Paulides explains what happens next (NAaB, p. 401-402): “On September 23, 1948, in the late afternoon, Jewell went for a walk around the property and never carne back. Jewell was five feet six inches tall and weighed one hundred and twenty pounds. She was last seen wearing blue slacks, blouse, and tennis shoes. An extensive search by ranchers and the county sheriff’s office failed to find Jewell, and I could not find any articles confirming she was found.”.
Judd McWilliams was a 82-year old rancher who went missing on September 15, 1948. Davis Paulides writes (NAaB, p. 401: “A thorough search of the area failed to find any evidence of what happened to the eighty-two-year oJd rancher. A long-term archival search was completed without finding any resolution to the disappearance of Judd.” (page 401). Paulides goes on to speculate: “If a typical predator had attacked Judd, there would have been hair, clothing, and blood on the scene. It almost appears as though Judd was snatched and was forced the drop the firearm. It is also an unusual coincidence that Judd’s rifle was found in an area of downed logs, a region where missing children are often found.”.
The Great Falls Tribune (26 Sep, 1948) states: “Jewell Hinrickson, 35, reported missing from Lewistown Tuesday, is at her fathers’s home in Lower sun River community, the sheriff’s office was notified here Saturday.”. Judd McWilliams was found dead six years later, in 1954. Sheriff Fred Bucker said McWilliams “became lost and wandered till he died of exhaustion” (The Spokesman-Review -11 Jun, 1954).
LeRoy Williams (1951)
64 years old, went missing in Iowa
The Missing 411 account
David Paulides writes (EUS, p. 31): “Williams was living on a farm three and one-half miles outside of Ackworth. Leroy was feeding stock and doing chores when he disappeared after he went outside in a heavy snowstorm. When Williams failed to return to the residence, authorities were called. Police brought bloodhounds that searched for hours and found no trace of the farmer. Sheriff Jack Taylor asked for volunteers to arrive at the farm and assist in the search. Searches did continue, and no clue as to Leroy’s whereabouts could ever be found.”.
During the search The Daily Times (16 Mar, 1951) stated: “It is feared Williams, who suffered from a heart ailment, might have had an attack and fallen in the snow”. LeRoy Williams’ body was found eleven days after he went missing (The Bayard News – 12 April, 1951), contrary to the information presented in Eastern United States.
John Sweet (1953)
48 years old, went missing in Illinois
The Missing 411 account
David Paulides writes (EUS, p. 32): “[John Sweet] came into the house, left the groceries and his billfold of cash, changed clothes, and went to the back of his barn to work on a tractor. He also told his wife that he was going to repair a pigpen that had been damaged (somehow) and retrieve several of his pigs that had wandered away. This was the last time anyone saw John.”. Paulides continues (EUS, p. 32): “John was not a small man. At 240 lbs he would not have wandered far without the tractor. An intensive search failed to find any evidence as to what happened to John Sweet.”.
Sweet’s body was found on November 11 (he went missing on October 22). The Daily Register (Nov 12, 1953) states: “All indications were that death was of natural causes and both Sheriff Paul Spangler and Coroner Elmer M. Gibbons were of that opinion.”. Sweet was found in a field by hunter Artie Williams. Williams brought neighbour Mr Moser to the scene and Mr Moser confirmed Sweet was wearing the same clothes as the day he went missing. Sweet still had his pipe in his mouth and “Sheriff Spangler said there was no sign of a struggle or violence on the body”. John, who was overweight, was suffering from high blood pressure and it is believed he died from a heart attack while chasing down his hogs.
An autopsy was performed at the Walker-Jackson Funeral Home and it was confirmed Sweet died of natural causes (Southern Illinoisan – 12 Nov, 1953)
Louis Blair (1956)
26 years old, went missing in Saskatchewan (Canada)
The Missing 411 account
David Paulides writes (EUS, p. 32): “Blair was a bachelor who maintained a large wheat field on his farm just ten miles west of the Saskatoon border and twelve miles north of Pravost. The area is dotted with hundreds of small lakes and rivers. On Sunday, August 5, Blair left his house early in the morning and headed into his field. He was never seen again. Regional RCMP completed a three-day search by 150 men and canines without finding a trace of the man.”.
The Leader-Post (13 Aug, 1956) states: “Louis Blair, a 26-year old farmer missing for eight days, has been found at Rutland, Sask. Douglas Carter, a former resident of the Provost area 160 miles southeast of Edmonton, notified police Sunday night that he had spotted the missing farmer in Rutland. Carter reported that Blair was unaware of the search by posse, aircraft and dog and had sought employment on a farm after running out of money at Unity, Sask., while on his way to visit and uncle at Regina. RCMP said Blair would return home to visit his anxious parents, Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Blair.”.
It appears Blair was not truly missing, he was just low on money.
Anthony Holland (2009)
51 years old, went missing in Oklahoma
The Missing 411 account
David Paulides writes (EUS, p. 33): “Holland owned an eighty-acre ranch southeast of Cordell. He returned home after attending a gun show and then left again to check on his ranch. He never returned. His truck was found one mile from Vanderwork Lake near a remote section of his ranch. His keys and wallet were inside the truck, and his cell phone was found on the ground a short distance from the truck. Tracker dogs were brought to the truck but were unable to locate any scent and could not track.” .
David Paulides then mentions one of his famous profile points (EUS, p. 33): “The area where Anthony disappeared has many farms and several scatterings of large bodies of water”. Paulides concludes the case by saying “Extensive searches were made of the area without developing any evidence of where Anthony may have gone.”.
News9.com (2011) states: “Anthony Holland, 51, disappeared after running an errand on June 21, 2009, and was never heard from or seen again. Remains were found on Holland’s property on March 29, and the State Medical Examiner’s Office was able to positively identify the remains as Holland’s. … The M.E.’s office ruled Holland died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head.”.
So the cause of death was suicide, not the Missing 411 phenomenon.
||Year|Status|Cause of disappearance|Missing 411 status| |:-|:-|:-|:-|:-| |Riley Amsbaugh|1902|Alive|Dementia|Never found| |E.C. Jones|1903|Alive|Marital jealousy|Never found| |Edward Gerke|1918|Dead|Lightning or foul play (gasoline/kerosene)|Found, lightning is mentioned| |Bernice Price|1923|Alive|Domestic abuse|Never found| |William Pitsenbarger|1931|Dead|Suicide|Found, drowning is mentioned| |Clarence Clark|1932|Dead|Heart attack|Never found| |George Bell|1936|Alive|Anxiety|Never found| |Jewell Hinrickson|1948|Alive|Visited her father’s home|Never found| |Judd McWilliams|1948|Dead|Exposure|Never found| |LeRoy Williams|1951|Dead|Snowstorm (heart ailment)|Never found| |John Sweet|1953|Dead|Heart attack/natural causes|Never found| |Louis Blair|1956|Alive|Monetary issues|Never found| |Anthony Holland|2009|Dead|Suicide|Never found|
Question to discuss
Missing 411 researcher David Paulides says these farmers were “intelligent people [who] inexplicably vanished” and that “the evidence from these cases indicates one thing: the victims were coerced into leaving their farms or were abducted from their land. No other explanation fits.”.
Can we based on contemporary newspaper articles conclude the Missing 411 farmers were indeed abducted?